African Journal of Agricultural Research handling and utilization pattern of cattle milk and milk products in northern ethiopia

Milk By-Products Utilization

This volume is however reduced by only 4% and the factory is still left with a huge quantity of de-proteinised whey to dispose of or further process. The profitability of the dairying can be greatly improved by economically utilizing the dairy by–products and it can be considered as a prerequisite to profitable dairy business.

What milk is healthiest?

  1. Hemp milk. Hemp milk is made from ground, soaked hemp seeds, which do not contain the psychoactive component of the Cannabis sativa plant.
  2. Oat milk.
  3. Almond milk.
  4. Coconut milk.
  5. Cow's milk.
  6. A2 milk.
  7. Soy milk.

This makes an excellent, durable, and inexpensive covering for any structure of wood or stone. If nothing but cement and milk are used, the color will be light, yellowish brown, but other colouring material can be added in form of dry pigment. Emulsion of olive oil and skim milk are used in wool manufacture as a dressing for the wool. Taking an average yield of ghee residue as one-tenth the quantity of ghee produced, at present level of ghee production (30.4 million tonnes), the GR produced works out to more than 3 million tonnes per annum. On overall basis, 61.3 and 38.7% of the respondents use ‘Gefho’ and ‘Jerican’ to store milk for fermentation.

Important by-products available from the dairy industry and their principles of utilization

This difference may show that, milk sale is more accustomed to the people of the current study area or there may be better market access. Lisak K, Toro-Sierra JT, Kulozik U, Božanic R, Cheison SC. Influence of temperature, pH, enzyme and substrate concentration on the chymotrypsin hydrollysis of whey proteins for recovery of native alpha-lactalbumin. 7th International Congress of Food Technologists, Biotechnologists and Nuiritionists, Opatija, Croatia, Book of Abstracts. For purposes of alcoholic fermentation yeasts (i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are usually used since they have a fast fermentation capacity and tolerate high concentrations of ethanol (up to 20% v/v).

  • Whey protein films with their admirable oxygen barrier properties stand out as sustainable biodegradable alternative materials to replace typically used nylon or polyester films.
  • It is also considered a functional ingredient because of its applications as a prebiotic, acidulant, antioxidant, firming agent and as a chelating agent of metal ions such as Fe .
  • After the evaporation stage, concentrated and supersaturated warm whey is obtained, which is then submitted to a crystallization process .
  • As heating is increased to 90-95°C for min, the precipitated curd begins to “break”, where it is removed from cheese caldron and transferred either into the perforated plastic moulds to draining for the next 4-6 h or into the cloth bags for 6-8 h.
  • During the production of other types of cheeses, such as soft types, the whey production is much lower or there is no production of whey at all.
  • In a culture media enriched with pasteu- rized sweet milk whey at a concentration of 70 g/L for 72 h in a mesophilic temperature condition, Propioniba- cterium shermanii is able to grow and produce up to 10 g/L of propionic acid .

Generally, to concentrate whey proteins, the molecular weight cut-off used is 10 kDa and UF is usually performed at temperatures below 50–55 °C, with a transmembrane pressure around 300–400 kPa and a membrane pore size of 250 nm. CW retentate contains protein, fat, insoluble salts, lactose and soluble minerals that did not cross the membrane, while the permeate contains mostly lactose . The concentration of lactose and soluble salts in the retentate remains similar to that of the feed. The recovery of the components present in the UF permeate has been carried out by several processes, namely RO, which, more recently, has been replaced by NF.

Application of immobilised microbial cell systems significantly enhances the production of lactic acid from an economic point of view. Immobilisation technology enables reutilisation of the used cells, continuous operation and higher cell densities in bioreactors as well as better purification of the end product . A different process has been shown to generate hydrolyzed protein from milk whey in a manner that reduces the allergenic properties of the product by up to 99.97%.

Article Contents

The influence of whey protein incorporation in processed cheese on its functional and sensory properties has been extensively studied. It has been found that whey proteins can be used to replace caseins up to 2% in processed cheese .

What are the 4 classifications of dairy products?

USDA determines class pricing through formulas tied to values for four storable dairy commodity products: cheddar cheese, dry whey, NFDM and butter. Class IV uses NFDM and butter. Class III uses cheese, whey and butter. Class II is similar to Class IV, but with a 70 cent-per-hundredweight premium.

These should be on the whole value chain from household and cattle camp livestock keeping, handling, slaughter, storage, market linkage and processing. This statistic displays the share of milk utilization in the Netherlands in 2021, by milk product. That year, approximately 57 percent of the milk was utilized in the process of cheese-making.

What pressure driven membrane processing has to do with butter milk and whey for sustainable income generation in India

The accumulation of flies attracted to the whey was observed as the only operational difficulty, and may present aesthetic rather than health concerns. The amount of whey offered should be adequately controlled to prevent exhaustive consumption of whey in a short time and thus avoiding possible bloat problems. Fresh delivery of whey from the dairy factory to farms is highly recommended and if whey storage is necessary it is recommended to use a preservative such as hydrogen peroxide. Being a pump able supplement, whey can save on feeding overheads as it requires less labour and feeding and mixing equipment, and can provide an economic and convenient method to feed urea supplements, vitamins, minerals and feed additives. Roughage intake per kg gain can be reduced from 3kg to 1kg (75% weighing (200kg/head) being fattened to 400kg, an additional income of LE200/head will be achieved.

The obtained LSCWC containing lactose and salts was used as a functional ingredient in the production of salad dressings. Besides, a desalted and lactose depleted LSCWC was also obtained by means of DF for the removal of lactose and salts. The resulting product contained about 10 times less lactose and salt than the ones of the product obtained by UF and was used as a functional ingredient in the production of fermented milk drinks. The direct use of LSCWC in food products can be a good alternative for SCW valorization in medium and small companies since it does not require expensive equipment. CW presents an important mixture of proteins with chemical, physical and functional properties. These proteins have important roles in nutrition and in specific physiological actions, namely the ability to bind metals or specific activities in the immune or digestive systems and are an important source of essential amino acids .

Milk By-Products Utilization

Recent advances and new findings in refining technologies for sustainable whey management are elaborated, and environmental practices focused on reducing the ecological footprint are considered. In the manufacturing of dairy products, there is usually a lot of damage to the environment due to the generation of waste from livestock producers and the by-products fromdairy foods. Presence of lactose, protein, minerals and water soluble vitamins make the whey highly nutritious product. The phospholipids of milk occur in a complex form with proteins in the fat globule membrane. When butter is heated to 120°C and above, the phospholipids are liberated from the phospholipid-protein complex and transferred to the oil phase. When the ghee-making process is kept much below 120°C, phospholipids, which remain in a complex form with proteins, will not enter ghee and, therefore, will be retained by GR.

2. Second Cheese Whey (Sorelho)

The procedures of this study were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Zhejiang University and were in accordance with the university’s guidelines for animal research. Corrosion-resistant equipment should be used as the acids in the whey can quickly rust and corrode metals or pit concrete. For dairy factories it is most cost effective to return whey to farmers on its milk procurement routes. Up to 25% reduction in wastewater disposal and end of-pipe treatment requirements costs. 100% recovery of a previously wasted by-product which needs no development requirements and low capital investment. After storing fresh whey permeate (pH 6.5) for 24hours, pH dropped to 4.8.

Three popular flavor formulations of goat ice cream are French vanilla, chocolate, and premium white mixes. Yogurt, one of the major cultured products, may be made from skim, low-fat, or whole milk. It is made essentially the same way as buttermilk, but a different combination of microorganisms is cultured at a higher incubation temperature. Goat yogurt is softer and less viscous and often lacks the typical flavor of cow yogurt. Eliminating or reducing whey disposal at the factory has significantly reduced the environmental pollution, namely BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, and Oil and Grease by 415ton , 522ton , 58ton , 218ton , and 62ton , respectively. This has allowed the factory to move towards compliance with industrial wastewater discharge Law 93. A training programmed for 5 factory production staff and 2 farm operators was completed.

  • She tries to avoid food wastage at home, which is not always well received by her family.
  • The cheese manufacturing industry produces vast volumes of aqueous wastes.
  • The authors concluded that clarification of by-products from ovine cheese manufacture by TP/MF significantly improved posterior UF treatments.
  • Whey protein is arguably the most nutritionally valuable protein available; little wonder that nutritional markets such as sports, clinical and infant nutrition are driving an unprecedented investment level in dairy production.
  • If you are having trouble seeing or completing this challenge, this page may help.
  • From an environmental prospective and to reduce the dependence on imported AH, it is strategically important for China to explore how to efficiently utilize these low quality forages in dairy production.

Α-La is the second major protein of whey , representing around 20% of bovine whey proteins. It is a calcium metalloprotein composed by 123 amino acids, being a strong Ca2+ binding protein. This protein is more resistant to denaturation by heat than β-LG, in neutral pH, since below 75 °C its denaturation is reversible . Its nutritive properties are very important, being the α-La purified fractions used in infant foods to adjust its protein content close to that of human milk .


Whey provides a low-cost alternative to liquid feeds, at a fraction of the cost (less than 10% of molasses). Emphasis has been placed on developing an economical and easily used factory-to-farm distribution system. This covers transferring the whey from the source point in the factory to the drinking basins at the farm as explained below.

  • The authors concluded that the wastewater could be used as a carbon source for Cr reduction.
  • These should be on the whole value chain from household and cattle camp livestock keeping, handling, slaughter, storage, market linkage and processing.
  • Marxianus where the biomass yield of 36 mg/mL was obtained with 83.33% crude protein content.
  • The chemically acidified gels produced stronger gel structures than the equivalent fermented systems.
  • She enjoys collaborating with researchers from across Canada, as well as sharing her research finding with producers and consumers.
  • Henning D., Baer R., Hassan A., Dave R. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.
  • Researchers have found that living near toxic waste regions can be detrimental for health.

Whey protein films with their admirable oxygen barrier properties stand out as sustainable biodegradable alternative materials to replace typically used nylon or polyester films. Moreover, whey proteins can form clear films and coatings with improved mechanical and barrier properties compared to polysaccharide-based films and may provide surface sterility . Besides the improved barrier properties, such films and coating also biodegrade fast.

De Souza R.R., Bergamasco R., da Costa S.C., Feng X., Faria S.H.B., Gimenes M.L. Recovery and purification of lactose from whey. Yorgun M., Balcioglu I.A., Saygin O. Performance comparison of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis on whey treatment. Guo M., Wang G. Milk protein polymer and its application in environmentally safe adhesives. Brandelli A., Daroit D.J., Corrêa A.P.F. Whey as a source of peptides with remarkable biological activities. Pelegrine D., Gasparetto C. Whey proteins solubility as function of temperature and pH.

Furthermore, revised policy and regulation are essential to fully implement the spectrum of solutions. Research to facilitate safe incorporation of by-products and food waste in animal feed is a critical step toward changes in policy and regulation. Improving the economic efficiency of recycling by-products and food waste, combined with tax incentives, could create demand for these products within the animal feed industry. Summary of the transcriptome data in the mammary gland of dairy cows fed corn stover or alfalfa hay . Summary of the proteome data in the mammary gland of dairy cows fed corn stover or alfalfa hay ). The unrefined crystalline lactose (also known as α-lactose monohydrate) is separated either by continuous centrifuges or by decanters. When continuous centrifuges are being applied, crystals are only separated but, in the case of decanters application, crystals are rinsed with fresh clean water; therefore, separation and rinsing are being conducted at the same time.

Whey and Second Cheese Way Nitrogen Compounds

Microbial fuel cell technology has been developed to obtain bioelectricity from milk wastes, thus providing new alternatives for the use of electric energy. Another way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contamination of soil and aquatic ecosystems by fossils fuels is by using dairy wastes to produce hydrogen as a biofuel. Desi buttermilk, on the other hand, has long been an important domestic beverage in India. It also finds its way in the preparation of a host of items such as kadhi, dhokla and idli.

  • Effects of carbohydrate/protein ratio on the microstructure and the barrier and sorption properties of wheat starch-whey protein blend edible films.
  • Temperature increase may cause problems and could be conducive to mould growth.
  • Lactose is the main component of whey, and constitutes ~70% of the total whey solids so whey is regarded as a good substrate for the production of lactose.
  • Protein preparation and digestion were performed as in the previous studies .
  • In the food industry, a group of French researchers from INRA, started using membrane technologies to concentrate the milk used in cheesemaking.
  • Photoproduction is another way to generate H2 using bacteria like Rhodopseudomonas Cyanobacterium Anacystis which presented a growth of 50% – 60% and produce approximately 70% – 90% of H2.
  • The qualification “fair” signifies that good as well as bad practises occur.

Skim milk along with milk protein and stabilizers were used to produce high-quality and acceptable Karish cheese with increased yield. Domiati cheese production was attempted earlier by an Egypt-based Milk By-Products Utilization company, but the cheese obtained was inferior to that made from fresh milk. The recombined Domiati cheese had a firm texture and developed weak flavor even after the normal maturation period.

Cerevisiae cannot ferment lactose, whey has to be enzymatically hydrolysized prior to the alcoholic fermentation. Marxianus are commonly used and, over the past few decades, whey permeate has been used for bioethanol production in Ireland, New Zealand, Denmark and in the United States of America . From the foregoing results, it could be recommended to use whey, a by-product from a cheese manufacturing process, could be used as an animal feed. 19 liters of liquid whey permeate can replace the same amount of energy and protein as provided by 2.4 kilogram of a 88% crude protein feed mix/roughage.

Fresh goat milk is a white, opaque liquid with a slightly sweet taste and no odor. It is adversely affected by improper practices of feeding, handling of animals and milk before, during and after milking; and by its cooling, transportation, pasteurization, processing method, packaging, and processing equipment.

Additional file 2:

The finished product, kefir, contains 0.6 percent to 0.8 percent lactic acid and 0.5 percent to 1.0 percent alcohol. Pasteurization and protection from sunlight or UV light control oxidized and “goaty” flavors. Goaty flavor is attributable to caproic, caprylic, and capric acids, which are present at high levels in goat milk fat and subject to release from fat globule membranes by lipases if improper milking and processing are practiced. The factory disposes its final effluent into the cities sewers without treatment. In addition to being a high environmental pollutant, disposal of the nutrient rich whey is a loss to the factory.

Milk By-Products Utilization

This might be related to the number of lactating cows and breed type they had as most of the households in the present study had local cows. Karin Wittenberg is Dean Emeritus, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Manitoba. Dr. Wittenberg received her doctorate in Ruminant Nutrition from the University of Manitoba and was fortunate to remain there as an academic and professional agrologist.

The properties of κ-carrageenan and whey protein isolate blended films containing pomegranate seed oil. Characterization of rosemary and thyme extracts for incorporation into a whey protein based film. Properties of whey protein isolate nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose isolated from oat husk.

Casein has long been used in the manufacture of various types of adhesives and may also be used to prepare plastic materials such as artificial horn or artificial ivory. Casein when combined with the oxides and salts of the metals of calcium group, casein forms a cement-like compound, insoluble in water. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too.